Petroleum Description

 

In this section we provide you with the basic information on the products we deal in, for purposes of common understanding.

 

 

Other range of petroleum products:

 

  • Automotive Diesel [ADO]
  • Super petrol [PMS]
  • Industrial Diesel Oil [IDO]
  • Furnace Oils [FO]
  • Bitumen emulsifiers, various grades of bitumen for road constructions.
  • Various grades of lubricants and oils etc
  • Equipment (fuel dispenser pumps, lubricant application pumping units etc) -
    Installation – services.

 

CRUDE OIL


We have available and can supply Crude Oil for 7.000.000 (seven million) barrels per month and this volume can e increased after 2 to 3 months to 10.000.000 (ten million) barrels per mo(ten million) barrels per month.

 

Crude oil is a mineral oil consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons of natural origin, yellow to black in color, of variable specific gravity and viscosity.

 

  • Crude oil type has a unique composition and is a complex mixture containing many thousands of hydrocarbon molecules of different shapes and sizes.

  • Crude oil varies radically in its properties, namely specific gravity and viscosity. Depending on the chemical nature of its chief constituents, crude oil is classified as paraffin base, asphaltic base, or mixed base.

  • A mixture of hydrocarbons existing in the liquid state found in natural underground reservoirs often associated with gas. A naturally occurring, oily, flammable liquid composed principally of hydrocarbons. Crude oil is occasionally found in springs or pools but usually is produced from wells drilled beneath the earth's surface.

  • Crude oil is the mixture of petroleum liquids and gases (including impurities such as (sulphur) that is pumped out of the ground by oil wells.

 

 

Types of Crude Oil

 

The petroleum industry often characterizes crude oils according to their geographical source. Oils from different geographical areas have unique properties; they can vary in consistency from a light volatile fluid to a semi-solid. Classification of crude oil types by geographical source is generally not a useful classification scheme for response personnel because they offer little information about general toxicity, physical state, and changes that occur with time and weathering. These characteristics are primary considerations in oil spill response. The classification scheme provided below is more useful in a response scenario.

 

  • Class A: Light, Volatile Oils . These oils are highly fluid, often clear, spread rapidly on solid or water surfaces, have a strong odor, a high evaporation rate, and are usually flammable. They penetrate porous surfaces such as dirt and sand, and may be persistent in such a matrix. They do not tend to adhere to surfaces; flushing with water generally removes them. Class A oils may be highly toxic to humans, fish, and other biota. Most refined products and many of the highest quality light crudes can be included in this class.

  • Class B: Non-Sticky Oils . These oils have a waxy or oily feel. Class B oils are less toxic and adhere more firmly to surfaces than Class A oils, although they can be removed from surfaces by vigorous flushing. As temperatures rise, their tendency to penetrate porous substrates increases and they can be persistent. Evaporation of volatiles may lead to a Class C or D residue. Medium to heavy paraffin-based oils fall into this class.

  • Class C: Heavy, Sticky Oils . Class C oils are characteristically viscous, sticky or tarry, and brown or black. Flushing with water will not readily remove this material from surfaces, but the oil does not readily penetrate porous surfaces. The density of Class C oils may be near that of water and they often sink. Weathering or evaporation of volatiles may produce solid or tarry Class D oil. Toxicity is low, but wildlife can be smothered or drowned when contaminated. This class includes residual fuel oils and medium to heavy crudes.

  • Class D: Nonfluid Oils . Class D oils are relatively non-toxic, do not penetrate porous substrates, and are usually black or dark brown in color. When heated, Class D oils may melt and coat surfaces making cleanup very difficult. Residual oils, heavy crude oils, some high paraffin oils, and some weathered oils fall into this class.

 

These classifications are dynamic for spilled oils; weather conditions and water temperature greatly influence the behavior of oil and refined petroleum products in the environment. For example, as volatiles evaporate from a Class B oil, it may become a Class C oil. If a significant temperature drop occurs (e.g., at night), a Class C oil may solidify and resemble a Class D oil. Upon warming, the Class D oil may revert back to a Class C oil.

 

The oil industry classifies "crude" by the location of its origin (e.g., "West Texas Intermediate, WTI" or "Brent") and often by its relative weight ( API gravity ) or viscosity ("light", "intermediate" or "heavy"); refiners may also refer to it as "sweet", which means it contains relatively little sulfur , or as "sour", which means it contains substantial amounts of sulfur and requires more refining in order to meet current product specifications.

 

HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil)

 

Pure or nearly pure residual oil, roughly equivalent to No. 6 fuel oil. Is a high-viscosity residual oil requiring preheating to between 220 to 260 degrees Fahrenheit. Residual means the material remaining after the more valuable cuts of crude oil have boiled off. The residue may contain various undesirable impurities including 2 percent water and one-half percent mineral soil.

 

REBCO: (Russian Export Blend Crude Oil)

 


RUSSIAN GASOLINE OIL 0.2–62 “Gost” 305 – 62 CIS RUSSIA

 

The quality of the Russian Export Blend Crude Oil is standard and more economical and better than the Middle East Oil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • A light crude oil, Russian Blend Crude Oil reserves are probably in the range of 90-105 billion barrels.
  • These reserves will be capable of sustaining an additional 35% over current levels for an extended period.
  • Russian Crude Oil reserves allow significant increase from current production and will assume an increasing importance.

 

REBCO is found in an oil field in the ad jacent area, thick sedimentary basins with all elements for hydrocarbon accumulation in Arctic and Pacific basins. Russia , a major world oil producer, has seven major basins, each equal to or larger than the gulf of Mexico and North Sea . Our business partnerships with Russian oil sellers make us a stable and reliable supplier or oil to serious, committed buyers.

 

The Future of Oil

 

The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is a controversial theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil and other fossil fuel production and depletion. It assumes that oil reserves are not replenished, and predicts that future world oil production must inevitably reach a peak and then decline as these reserves are exhausted. Much of the controversy is over whether past production or discovery data can be used to predict a future peak. Based on available production data, proponents have previously (and incorrectly) predicted the peak years to be 1989, 1995, or 1995-2000, however these predictions date from before the recession of the early 1980's, and the consequent reduction in global consumption, the effect of which was to delay the date of any peak by several years. A new prediction by Goldman Sachs picks 2007 for oil and some time later for natural gas.

 

Environmental effects

 

The presence of oil has significant social and environmental impacts, from accidents and routine activities such as seismic exploration, drilling, and generation of polluting wastes. Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging, although Dr. John Hunt from Woods Hole pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural leaks. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment. Extraction may involve dredging, which stirs up the sea bed, killing the sea plants that marine creatures need to survive. Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged fragile ecosystems.

 

JET FUEL A-1

 

Jet fuel is a colorless, combustible, straight run petroleum distillate liquid its principal uses are as an ingredient in lamp oils, charcoal starter fluids, jet engines fuels and insectisides.


This class of fuel provides a good balance of properties currently required from an aviation fuel, in which energy density, operational issues, cost, and safety all need to be taken into account.


All jet fuels are composed primarily of hydrocarbons as a blend of saturates, with no more than 25% aromatics. Olefins may be present, but they are effectively kept below about 1% by stability requirements. Additionally, a fuel may contain up to 0.3% sulfur by weight, although the level is generally less than 0.1%

 

The most common fuel worldwide is a kerosene-based fuel classified as JET A-1.

 

The only other jet fuel that is commonly used in civilian aviation is called JET B . JET B is a fuel in the naptha- kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, JET B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle, and it is thus restricted only to areas where its cold-weather characteristics are absolutely neccesary

 

Aviation fuel is often dispensed from a truck which is driven up to parked airplanes and helicopters. Less commonly, some airports have pumps similar to filling stations that aircraft must taxi up to. Some extremely large airports also have permanent piping to parking areas for large aircraft.

 

Regardless of the method, aviation fuel is transferred to an aircraft via one of two methods: overwing and underwing . Overwing fuelling is used on smaller planes, helicopters, and all piston-engine aircraft. Overwing fuelling is similar to automobile fuelling — one or more gas ports are opened and fuel is pumped in with a conventional pump. Underwing fuelling, also called single-point , is used on larger aircraft and for jet fuel exclusively.

 

DIESEL GAS OIL grade 305-62

 

We can supply any volume of Diesel Oil

 

Diesel Fuel is a specific distillate fraction of fuel oil that is used in diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. Overwhelmingly the term refers to fuel that is processed from petroleum, but increasingly, alternatives such as biodiesel that are not derived form petroleum are being developed.

 

Chemical composition of Diesel

 

Petroleum derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n , iso , and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including napthalenes and alkylbenzenes).

 

Diesel is identical to heating oil, used in central heating. In both Europe and the United States taxes on diesel fuel are higher than on heating oil, and in those areas, heating oil is marked with dye and trace chemicals to prevent and detect tax fraud. In the UK it is known as red diesel, and is also used by agricultural vehicles.

 

Diesel is used in diesel engines, a type of internal combustion engine. Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use coal dust as a fuel, but oil proved more effective. Diesel engines are used in cars, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

 

One can obtain diesel from petroleum, which is sometimes called petrodiesel when there is a need to distinguish it from diesel obtained from other sources. As a hydrocarbon mixture, it is obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 250 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure. Diesel is generally simpler to refine than gasoline and often costs less (though price fluctuations often mean that the inverse is true).

 

However, diesel fuel often contains higher quantities of sulfur. In Europe , emission standards and/or preferrential taxation have forced oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels.

 

MAZUT M100 10585-75

 


Mazut is a low-grade oil primarily used in industrial boilers and other direct source heating applications. It is also used as a principal fuel in marine applications in large diesel engines. Given its high boiling point and tar-like consistency, typically requires heating before it can moved through pipes or dispensed into a boiler or other heating vessel to be burned.

 

Mazut is the least expensive of the refined oil fuels and can only be used by facilities that have preheating capabilities. It is typically high in sulphur and other impurities that are released into the air when the fuel is burned.

 

Use releases sulphur dioxide, a key component of acid rain, into the atmosphere. The sulphur contained in heavy fuel oil also forms sulphate particles that contribute to the formation of fine particulate matter.

 

Heavy fuel oil is consist largely of residues from crude oils refining. These residues are blended with suitable gas oil fractions in order to achieve the viscosity required for convenient handling. Since the sulfur contained in the crude oil is concentrated in the residue material heavy fuel oils may contain large quantities of heavy metals such as nickel and vanadium and also sediments and water.

 

LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)


LPG is the generic name for commercial propane, commercial butane. Whatever the size or nature of your commercial operation, we help you to meet your energy needs we have an excellent distribution network



LPG which is a mixture of butane , propane and other light hydrocarbons derived from refining crude oil. At normal temperature it is a gas but can be cooled or subjected to pressure to facilitate storage and transportation.

 

PROPANE BUTANE

 

Uses Of LPG

 

Traditional Uses LPG is used for:

 

  • Space Heating
  • Central- Heating
  • Water – Heating
  • Refrigeration
  • Cooking Lighting

 

Automotive Fuel:

 


LPG is gaining international support as an environmentally friendly automotive fuel, particularly in town and cities where vehicles cause specific pollution problem.

The automotive use of LPG has an excellent safety record and various crash test and fire tests have proved that owing to the strength and integrity of the fuel tank.

 

 

 

In addition, because of its mobility, lpg can be put to a Number of other uses such as:

 

  • On building and civil engineering sites
  • In agricultural
  • For heating and cooking in caravans or in boats
  • As a fuel for internal combustion engine including cars, vans, buses and generators/pump.

 

Benefits Of LPG Over Other Heating Fuels

 

  • Its clean burning attributes allow it to be used for direct firing of furnaces and ovens in situations where the products of combustions can effect the quality product.
  • Gas burning equipment requires less maintenance than oil burners.
  • There is no ash generated from LPG as with wood coal.

 

Hazards in Using LPG

 

LPG is a flammable gas which has the potential to create a hazard. Therefore it is important that the properties and safe handling of LPG are understood and applied in the domestic  and commercial/industrial situations.

 

  • LPG is stored under pressure. The gas will leak from any joint or connection which is not sealed properly.
  • LPG is heavier than air. Any significant leak will move downwards and stay on the ground. It will accumulate in any low-lying area such as depressions in the ground, drains or pits.
  • Since  LPG is stored in two phases liquid and gaseous there is potential for either a liquid leak or a gas leak.

 

If the leak is a gas leak it may not be seen (because LPG is colourless), except where the leak is of sufficient size to be seen shimmering in the air.

 

When a liquid leak occurs, the gas release will be seen as a patch of ice around the area of the leak, or as a jet of white liquid. This white appearance is due to the cooling effect created by the rapid expansion of the LPG liquid into a gas. The condensing atmospheric moisture makes the leak visible.

 

In concentrated amounts and in uncontrolled conditions, LPG has the potential to create a fire or an explosion.

 

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

 


LNG stands for liquefied natural gas. It is natural gas cooled to roughly -267° F at normal air pressure. It is odorless, non-toxic, non-corrosive and less dense than water.

 

 

Natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. It produces less emissions and pollutants than either coal or oil. As a liquid, LNG in not explosive LNG vapor will only explode if an enclosed space. LNG vapor is only explosive if within the flammable range of 50%-15% when mixed with air.

 

The conversion of natural gas into liquid is called liquefaction and is achieved through refrigeration. Liquefaction reduces the volume by approximately 600 times, making it more economical to transport between continents in specially designed ships. LNG is converted back to gas by passing the liquid through vaporizers that warm it. Both processes are performed using advanced technologies with a proven safety record.

 

Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (typically, at least 90%), but may also contain ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. Small quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water may also be found in "pipeline" natural gas. The liquefaction process removes the oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water. The process can also be designed to purify the LNG to almost 100% methane.

 

TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GAS

 

Typical Composition of Natural Gas

Methane CH 4 70-90%
Ethane C 2 H 6 0-20%
Propane C 3 H 8  
Butane C 4 H 10  
Carbon Dioxide CO 2 0-8%
Oxygen O 2 0-0.2%
Nitrogen N 2 0-5%
Hydrogen sulphide H 2 S 0-5%
Rare gases A, He, Ne, Xe trace

 

Uses of Natural Gas:

 

  • Residential Uses
  • Commercial Uses
  • Uses in Industry
  • Natural Gas in the transportation section
  • Electric Generation Using Natural Gas
 
 
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